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Friday, March 5, 2021

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): Cause, Symptoms, Prevention, Diagnosis & Treatment

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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is the disease which is caused by the virus that belongs to the coronavirus family and responsible for the respiratory tract infections in humans as well as birds also. It first came to notice in Feb 2003 when it started spreading in China thereafter in Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore and Canada. 


The virus which is responsible for SARS, belongs to the coronavirus family and was named SARS-CoV by WHO.  SARS-Covid-2 virus which caused the Covid-19, also belongs to the same family and it’s name is also based on SARS virus’ nomenclature. Origin of the coronavirus is ideally bats which are the reservoir of many viruses. Although the origin of SARS-CoV in the human society is still unknown, yet it is considered that the virus reached the human society through the animals like Palm Civet which either come in contact with bats or predate on them. The human’s continuous encroachment into the forest, may also lead to transmitting these viruses in human society. 


The following mentioned symptoms are the early sign of SARS:

  • headache
  • body aches
  • fever over 100.4°F (38°C)
  • Chill
  • loss of appetite

    The above mentioned symptoms may start developing either in the initial stage or over the period of 7 days which is usual in the case of viral infection. It is also called the incubation period. Sometimes it also includes Diarrhea which might be in almost 20 percent of patients who are affected with the virus.

Some other uncommon symptoms:

  • Rash
  • Dry cough
  • Sore throat

  The above mentioned symptoms may also be developed either in the incubation period or post incubation (after 7 days). It all depends on the body immune system.  These symptoms may also be the sign of emergency medical attention as they may develop some oxygen deficiency in the body and patients start gasping for breath. 


Although the most of the patients who are infected with SARS recover from it fully yet some of the patients’ illness becomes severe and may develop the following complications:

  • Pneumonia 
  • Long term lungs problem
  • Liver damage or failure of liver
  • Partial kidney damage or failure of kidneys 

    Sometimes there is fatality due to heart failure. The chances of these complications are high if the patient’s age is more than 60 and have comorbidity disease like diabetes and hepatitis. Sometimes respiratory failure can also lead to fatality. 


As it is earlier mentioned that the SARS no longer exists, there is no need to worry about it but if it starts spreading again anytime in the future then one can take the following precautions to prevent it.

  • Avoid travelling to the area where the virus is spreading.

  • Either wash your hands with soap regularly or use alcohol based sanitizer to sanitize your hands.

  • Wear a mask if you go out in the area where people are infected with the virus or if you go to someone who is affected with the virus. 

  • Avoid touching your mouth, nose and eyes.

  • Disinfect the surface which is open to others and could be contaminated with their regular activities.

Simultaneously if the person gets infected, with his moral responsibilities he should avoid making interaction with people and make himself quarantine so that avoid infecting others. 


SARS is a contagious disease which spreads when the droplets from the infected person reach the body of the healthy person. There are different modes of transmission which are sneezing, coughing and exhaling. Even shouting and singing are also responsible for transmission of SARS-CoV. Similar to this SARS-CoV-2 spreads.

SARS-CoV can be transmitted in the following ways:

    Contact Transmission: If the healthy person touches the objects that are already contaminated with the SARS-CoV virus and touches his nose, eyes and mouth. These objects are contaminated when the droplets from infected persons fall on them through sneezing and coughing.

    Droplets Transmission: When the healthy person comes in direct contact with an infected person. In this case respiratory droplets which are about the size of 5 μm transmit from a symptomatic person who is at the distance of 1 meter to a healthy person. 

    Airborne Transmission: many studies claimed that SARS-CoV is an airborne virus which means it can remain in the air for many hours and can be transmitted through inhalation. 


Although the SARS has completely eradicated yet there might be possibility that in future it can be transmitted again to human society as it is also found in the animals which come either directly or indirectly in contact with human society. In that case the following test can be considered:

  • Serology Test
  • Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT_PCR)

Sometimes doctors suggest an X-ray or CT-Scan if the patient has pneumonia like illness to check if there is any effect on lungs. 


Throughout the spreading of virus at the time of its first outbreak, several medicines like Ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir were tried but none of them showed the outcome. Some of them were not effective and the rest of them showed results with major side-effects. Only supportive medicines were used according to the symptoms of the patients. 


To develop a vaccine, it requires continuous hard work. Simultaneously it goes through many stages and numerous trails. Apart from them, It also requires huge funds. Nevertheless the outcome is uncertain. That is what happened in the case of vaccines for SARS but as we were able to break the chain of SARS-CoV virus, the requirement of developing a vaccine against it was seized. Therefore no vaccine has developed so far to treat SARS disease but the studies and research on it, are helping doctors and scientists to develop a vaccine against novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. 

Sunday, October 18, 2020

Coronavirus (Covid-19) Disease: All you need to know about 2020 pandemic

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    21st century's most severe disease Covid19 has become the matter of concern. So far around 110 millions people worldwide have been affected with the virus and more than 2.43 millions people have been dead just because of this novel coronavirus. Novel Coronavirus belongs to the family of SARS Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory System) which was spread in 2003, worldwide. 



    In Nov 2019, the people of Wuhan City of Eastern China started falling ill with pneumonia like symptoms. Earlier it was considered pneumonia as whatever the symptoms patients there were showing, belonged to pneumonia but the transmission rate of it is very high.

     Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist at Wuhan Central Hospital warned his ex-medical school classmates on 30th Dec 2019 that he noticed several patient with SARC like illness. After further examination of the patients by the doctors, it was found that it is a Novel Coronavirus. Then it was given the name severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) by International Committee on Taxonomy of Virus (ICTV) and the disease will be known as COVID-19, the name which was provided by World Health Organization (WHO).


    Gradual assessment and research on the covid-19 affected patients are helping doctors to understand it extensively. Based on this research and assessment, the doctors are able to understand that the virus takes 2 to 14 days for the incubation after the virus enters the body. In this period the patient may have the following symptoms:  

Common symptoms 

  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Cough

     Fever and Cough are also common in flu but Covid-19 and flu can be differentiated by the order of the symptoms. According to the study conducted by the University of Southern California, it is suggested that in most covid-19 infected people, fever is the early sign of symptoms and cough afterward while in flu it is cough which starts with the infection.  

Some other less severe Symptoms

  • Aches and Pains
  • Running Nose
  • Sore Throat 
  • Diarrhea
  • Conjunctivitis 
  • Rashes on Skin or Discolouration of Finger or Toes 
  • Loss of Taste 
  • Loss of Smell

    Although the early sign of Covid-19 is fever and some other symptoms which are mentioned above, they are identical and could be confusing with other illnesses. Due to this reason, it is hard to identify Covid-19. The two unique symptoms, loss of smell and loss of taste are most appropriate to identify the disease according to the study conducted by the University College of London (UCL) and published in PLOS Medicine. In this case one should immediately isolate oneself and seek medical help.  

Severe Symptoms

  • Difficulty in Breathing or Shortness of Breath
  • Chest Pain or Pressure 
  • Loss of Speech and Movement
  • Bluish Lips and Face

    If you have any of the above mentioned symptoms, you should immediately seek emergency medical attention. 

          The symptoms mentioned above are considered after throughout observation of the Covid-19 patients. There might be some other symptoms which might not have included so far. Patients should tell the doctors all their symptoms. Central of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in US, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS) in India and all the institution throught the world are continuously observing the patients with new symptoms.        

    Some people do not have symptoms but carry virus. There is debate on the number of asymptomatic cases and recently the World Health Organization (WHO) claimed that nearly 10 percent of the world population has been infected with the Covid-19. While in South Asian's countries like India 80 percent of reported cases are asymptomatic. 



    Critically infected patients who require not only immediate medical assistance but also continuous observation under the supervision of medical staff. These patients may develop any of the following serious illnesses which in some cases, lead the patient to death. 

  • Pneumonia or shortness of Breath
  • Abnormal heart beat due to the Myocarditis and sometime heart failure
  • Kidney Failure
  • Malfunction of Lever 
  • Blood Clotting 
  • Septic Shocks
  • Many Organ Failure
  • Affects on Reproductive System
  • Affect on Neurological System
  • Immune System Disorder


Covid-19 Complications

     Patient’s condition may deteriorate if he has any of the following illnesses: 

  • Certain heart illness like Cardiomyopathy
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)
  • Cancer 
  • Weaken Immune System
  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Chronic Kidney Disease

     Age is another factor that deteriorates the condition of the patient and makes the illness severe. It is observed that patients who are in their fifty and above are at higher risk and mortality rate among them increase as the age group of the patient goes up.  


    The only way the coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) transmitted, is through the respiratory droplets. These respiratory droplets come from the infected person when he exhales, sneezes, coughs and even when he sings and shouts and sometimes when he talks loudly.  

    There are three ways when these respiratory droplets reach into the body of a healthy person and infect him: 

Contact Transmission: When a healthy person comes into contact with either the infected person or the contaminated objects like the lift's button and doors etc.  

Droplet Transmission: When a healthy person comes in close contact (less than 6 feet) with the infected person.  

Airborne Transmission: Some of the recent study conducted by the CDC claimed that Novel Coronavirus is airborne which means the virus can remain suspended in the air for many hours and can spread widely rather than earlier considered 6 feet from the infected person. 

 Prevention and Precaution 

    Although we could not stop the virus from spreading, we can prevent it by taking following precautions: 

  • Wash or sanitize our hands frequently. 
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with your hand.
  • Always maintain a minimum 6 feets distance from others.
  • Always cover your mouth and nose with a mask whenever you go out. 
  • Avoid unnecessary travelling.
  • Avoid mass gathering. 

    If someone already infected he should also take the following precaution:

  • Isolate himself from others for a while even from his family members.
  • Keep all your daily usable items like towels etc. separately.
  • Avoid moving outside from the isolated place.
  • Sanitize objects that you use frequently.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a mask. 


    There are three tests that are widely considered to diagnose covid19. Although these tests are imperfect, yet they are best at this time when effectiveness, time and price are considered. These tests are: 

Antibody Test (Rapid Test): This test is also known as serology test. In this test blood sample of the patient is taken to find if the body makes antibodies against the covid-19. These antibodies suggest that the patient has or had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the body is making antibodies against it but it does not tell if the patient will have antibodies against the virus in the future. The antibodies can remain in the body for months so it can’t be identified when the body is infected with the virus.  

Antigen Test: In this test a throat or nose swab is taken from the patient. Through this swab doctors check for the protein which is found on the surface of the virus. This test does not require intensive labor. There might be a possibility of false negative if the medical staff does not take swabs from deep in the nose or throat. False negative also possible if you go for a test within 2 days after infecting with the virus. It is advisable to conduct this test after 5 to 7 days of symptoms. 

RT-PCR Test: A swab from deep into the nose and throat is also required in this test to find ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Similar to the Antigen test, there is the possibility of false negative in the same manner as it is in antigen test.  


    There is no approved medicine for covid-19 and experts are analyzing the current treatment which is given to the patient. This treatment is based on the condition of the patients and severity of the disease.  

    Patients with mild symptoms are advised to isolate themselves at home and stay away from the other people even from the family members. They are advised to take complete rest and plenty of fluids.  

    To overcome other illnesses which are associated with covid-19 like fever and sore throat, doctors give supportive treatment to get relief from them. For high temperature doctors prescribe either paracetamol or ibuprofen.   

Medicines and their effectiveness  

Remdesivir: Remdesivir is antiviral medication that was primarily developed to treat hepatitis C, Ebola and the disease related to Marburg virus but it did not show effectiveness on these diseases but throughout covid-19 outbreak when it was tested against the SARC-CoV-2, it performed well. It helps in stopping the virus from replication. According to a study conducted by New England Journal of Medicine on 1062 patients, it showed that it reduced the recovery time by 5 days and for the patients on oxygen supports reduced the recovery time by 7 days.         

Favipiravir: Favipiravir is anti-influenza medicine which was developed by Toyama Chemical and is primarily used in Japan to treat influenza.  It helps in inhibiting polymerase of RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 and reduces virus load in the lung which helps in virus transmission through direct contact.  

Dexamethasone: Dexamethasone is a steroid and widely used to treat a number of diseases like asthma, allergy and to the patients with eye pain after the eye surgery. Throughout covid-19 clinical trials, it was found that Dexamethasone helped in reducing the death rate by one-third in severely affected covid-19 patients. But if it is given to the patient with mild symptoms or too early, it could hamper the body immune system’s fighting against the virus. 

    The following medicines were gone through medical trials throughout this covid-19 crisis but did not show their effectiveness and now the use of most of them to treat covid-19 patients are abandoned. 

  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • BCG Vaccine 
  • Ivermectin
  • Oseltamivir
  • Lopinavir / Ritonavir
  • Interferon 
  • Tocilizumab
  • Zinc Tablets
  • Vitamin C & D Tablets 

Plasma Transfusion: Many countries across the globe are also using plasma transfusion therapy to treat covid-19 patients. Plasma from the patients who have generated the antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 is taken and infused in the body of the patients who are affected with the virus. Study is under way to get all its ins and outs.  

Ayurvedic Treatment: There are many claims to treat the covid-19 patients especially by the coronil from the yog teacher Baba Ramdev, but there is still need data of their study to support their claim. 

Note: Medicines and its doses are only prescribed by the doctors according to the condition of the patients. One should never rely on self-medication as it may aggravate your illness and sometimes could have side-effects. 


The whole world is working tirelessly to develop a vaccine to fight against covid-19. There are almost 200 candidates according to the WHO’s report. 156 of vaccines are in preclinical trials and around 40 are in clinical trials. The five of them are leading the race and in the most advanced stage which are mentioned below: 

  • AZD1222, by Oxford University and AstraZeneca from United Kingdom
  • mRNA-1273, by Moderna from United States of America
  • BNT162b1, by BioNTech from Germany and Pfizer from US
  • Adenovirus Type 5 Vector by CanSino Biological Inc. / Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, from China
  • CoronaVac, by Sinovac from China 

Although there are 2 vaccines which are approved, the first is Sputnik V formerly known as Gam-COVID-Vac, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute in Moscow, approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the second is EpiVacCorona. Experts are concerned about efficiency of the vaccines as both the vaccines neither went through phase 3 trials nor the Russian govt. provided data of phase 1 and 2 of these vaccines. 


Monday, September 28, 2020

तीन कृषि अधिनियम और किसानो का आंदोलन

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नया कृषि अधिनियम

भारत सरकार 5 जून 2020 को 3 अध्यादेश लेकर आयी। यह अध्यादेश कृषि सुधार से जुड़े हैं जिसमें कृषि विकास और किसानों की आय केंद्रित है। ये अध्यादेश हैं:

1. आवश्यक वस्तुएं ( संशोधन ) आदेश, 2020
2. किसानों का उत्पादन व्यापार और वाणिज्य (संवर्धन और सुविधा) आदेश, 2020
3. किसानों (रोजगार और संरक्षण) मूल्य आश्वासन पर समझौता और कृषि सेवा आदेश, 2020 

हालाँकि ये अध्यादेश संसद के अगले सप्ताह के 6 सप्ताह बाद समाप्त हो सकते थे, इसलिए इसे विधेयक के रूप में  संसद में प्रस्तुत किया गया। दोनों सदनों ने उन्हें पारित कर दिया है और अब वे अधिनियम बन गए हैं। आइए समझते हैं कि ये अधिनियम क्या हैं:

1. आवश्यक वस्तुएं ( संशोधन ) आदेश, 2020:

आवश्यक वस्तु के 1955 के अधिनियम के अनुसार, भारत सरकार कृषि उत्पादों के उत्पादन, आपूर्ति और वितरण के साथ-साथ व्यापार और वाणिज्य को नियंत्रण में ले सकता है जिनकी उपलब्धता और बाजार कीमत में अस्थिर आ जाये। लेकिन नए संशोधन के अनुसार भारत सरकार इसमें निम्नलिखित बदलाव लायी है:
  1. अनाज, दालें, खाद्य तेल, तेल, आलू और प्याज सहित ऐसे खाद्य पदार्थों की आपूर्ति को भारत सरकार द्वारा तभी नियंत्रित किया जा सकता है जब कुछ असाधारण परिस्थितियों जैसे युद्ध, अकाल, प्राकृतिक आपदा और कीमत में उल्लेखनीय वृद्धि आ जाये।
  2. केवल मूल्य वृद्धि के मामले में स्टॉक सीमा को नियंत्रित किया जाएगा और इसके लिए आदेश केवल निम्नलिखित शर्तों के तहत जारी किया जा सकता है
    • यदि जल्दी खराब होने वाले खाद्य पदार्थ जैसे फल एवं सब्जियों की बाजार कीमत 100 प्रतिशत बढ़ जाती है।
    • यदि खाद्य पदार्थों जैसे अनाज और दालें की बाजार कीमत 50 प्रतिशत बढ़ जाती है।
  3. कीमतें स्थिर करने लिए 12 महीने के बाद या 5 साल के औसत कीमत जो भी कम होगी, पर विचार किया जायेगा
  4. भंडारण सीमा को स्थिर करने के लिए कोई भी आदेश प्रोसेसर और मूल्य श्रृंखला प्रतिभागियों पर लागू नहीं होगा यदि उनके कारखानों की भंडारण क्षमता, वस्तु की प्रसंस्करण क्षमता से अधिक नहीं है और निर्यातकों के मामले में अगर भंडारण क्षमता उनके निर्यात की क्षमता से अधिक नहीं है।
  5. सार्वजनिक वितरण प्रणाली (पीडीएस) या लक्षित सार्वजनिक वितरण प्रणाली (टीपीडीएस) स्टॉक सीमा आदेश के दायरे में नहीं आएगी।

2. किसानों का उत्पादन व्यापार और वाणिज्य (संवर्धन और सुविधा) आदेश, 2020: इस अधिनियम के अनुसार किसानों और व्यापारियों को कृषि उत्पाद बेचने और खरीदने की पूर्ण स्वतंत्रता है। किसान अपनी फसल को राज्य में और राज्य के बाहर कहीं भी बेंच सकते है । वे अपनी कृषि उपज को जिस भी कीमत पर चाहें बेच सकते हैं। इसी तरह व्यापारियों को भी समान लाभ हैं। वे पूरे भारत में किसी के साथ अनुसूचित कृषि उत्पादों (केवल एएमपीसी के तहत बेचा जा सकता है) में व्यापार कर सकते हैं।


  1. कोई भी व्यापारी भारत के किसी भी राज्य में अनुसूचित कृषि उत्पादों का व्यापार कर सकता है। उसके लिए उसके पास एक स्थायी खाता संख्या (PAN) होनी चाहिए। वह व्यापार को आसान बनाने के लिए एक व्यापारिक क्षेत्र में एक इलेक्ट्रॉनिक ट्रेडिंग और लेनदेन मंच भी स्थापित कर सकता है लेकिन इन प्लेटफ़ॉर्म को नियमों और दिशानिर्देशों का पालन करना होगा।
  2. यदि व्यापारियों द्वारा इलेक्ट्रॉनिक ट्रेडिंग के संबंध में कोई अनियमितता की जाती है तो सरकार सख्त कारवाही कर सकती है और कड़े नियम बना सकती है।
  3. किसी भी राज्य सरकार को किसानों, व्यापारी या किसी भी इलेक्ट्रॉनिक ट्रेडिंग पर किसी भी तरह का शुल्क लगाने का अधिकार नहीं है।
  4. वर्तमान एपीएमसी (APMC) जारी रहेगा और किसी भी राज्य के एपीएमसी अधिनियम और राज्य के अन्य कानून को फिलहाल लागू किया जाएगा।

विवाद का समाधान

  1. किसान और व्यापारी के बीच किसी भी विवाद के मामले में, वे एसडीएम (SDM) को एक आवेदन दायर करके समाधान की गुज़ारिश कर सकते हैं। वह उनके मामले को समझौता समिति (Conciliation Board) को भेजेंगे।
  2. समझौता समिति में एक अध्यक्ष और सदस्य दो से कम नहीं और चार से अधिक नहीं होंगे।
  3. यदि दोनों पक्ष तीस दिनों के भीतर अपने विवाद को हल करने में असमर्थ हैं, तो वे उप-विभागीय मजिस्ट्रेट (SDM) से संपर्क कर सकते हैं जो प्रावधानों के किसी भी उल्लंघन का संज्ञान लेकर कार्रवाई करने और विवाद को निपटाने के आदेश देगा।
  4. कोई भी पक्ष इस मामले में दीवानी अदालत का दरवाजा नहीं खटखटा सकता है और अनुविभागीय प्राधिकरण (Sub-Divisional Authority) के सभी आदेश दीवानी न्यायालय के समान होंगे।
  5. कोई भी व्यक्ति जो किसी आदेश से संतुष्ट नहीं है, वह 60 दिनों के भीतर अधिकारी से संपर्क करेगा जो की भारत सरकार के संयुक्त सचिव के पद से नीचे के पद का न हो यदि वह ऐसा करने में असक्षम होता है तो उसे 90 दिनों में भी अदिकारी से संपर्क कर सकता है पर उसे इस मामले में देरी का कारण बताना होगा।


  1. यदि कोई पक्ष प्रावधानों का उल्लंघन करता है, तो वह 25000 / - कम से काम रुपये के दंड का भुगतान करने के लिए उत्तरदायी होगा जो कि 5,00,000 / - रुपये तक बढ़ सकता है। यदि किसी भी पक्ष ने उल्लंघन जारी रखा, तो जुर्माना प्रत्येक दिन के लिए 5,000/-  रुपये लगाया जा सकता है।
  2. यदि कोई व्यक्ति जो इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स ट्रेडिंग और लेनदेन प्लेटफॉर्म का मालिक है, उसे नियंत्रित करता है या संचालित करता है, और  धारा 5 और 7 के प्रावधान का उल्लंघन करता है तो दंड का भुगतान करने के लिए उत्तरदायी होगा जो की काम से काम 5,000 /- और अधिकतम 10 लाख तक हो सकता है।

3. किसानों (रोजगार और संरक्षण) मूल्य आश्वासन पर समझौता और कृषि सेवा आदेश, 2020: इस बिल के माध्यम से किसानों को कृषि व्यावसायिक फर्मों, प्रोसेसर, थोक विक्रेताओं, निर्यातकों और बड़े खुदरा विक्रेताओं के साथ अपने कृषि उपज को लाभदायक मुनाफे के लिए औपचारिक समझौता (Formal Agreement) करने की अनुमति है। पहले अनुबंध खेती (Contract Farming)के लिए कोई प्रावधान नहीं था और इसके कारण बड़ी कंपनियां खेत क्षेत्र में निवेश नहीं कर सकती थीं लेकिन इस अधिनियम के माध्यम से बड़े व्यावसायिक संघ अब ऐसा कर सकती हैं।


  1. किसान किसी भी व्यावसायिक संघ के साथ अपनी कृषि उत्पादन के लिए सप्लाई, उत्पादन की गुणवत्ता, कीमत और कृषि सेवाएं(कृषि सेवांए वह होती है जिसमे बीज खाद, कीटनाशक और खेती की मशीनें मुहैया कराइ जाती है) का  समझौता कर सकता है।
  2. कृषि-व्यवसाय कंपनियों, प्रोसेसर या किसी भी बड़े खुदरा विक्रेताओं के अधिकारों का शोषण नहीं किया जाएगा।
  3. समझौते की न्यूनतम अवधि एक फसल का मौसम और अधिकतम अवधि पांच साल हो सकती है।
  4. केंद्रीय सरकार किसानों को समझौते में प्रवेश करने के लिए दिशानिर्देश और मॉडल कृषि समझौता प्रदान कर सकती है।
  5. खेत की उपज की कीमत समझौते में उल्लिखित की जाएगी और अगर कीमत कृषि उपज की प्रक्रिया के दौरान बदलती है तो एक गारंटी मूल्य + अतिरिक्त राशि किसान को दी जाएगी, बशर्ते कि गारंटीकृत कीमत और अतिरिक्त राशि खोजने का एक तरीका अनुबद्ध किया जाएगा। 
  6. प्रायोजक बीज उत्पादन के मामले में, डिलीवरी के समय स्वीकृत राशि का दो-तिहाई भुगतान करेगा और शेष राशि उचित प्रमाणीकरण के बाद, लेकिन डिलीवरी के तीस दिनों के भीतर करेगा और अन्य उत्पादन के मामले डिलीवरी के तुरंत बाद करेगा।
  7. राज्य सरकार भुगतान के लिए मोड और तरीके को परिभाषित कर सकती है।
  8. यदि कोई कृषि उत्पाद राज्य अधिनियम के अंतर्गत आता है और उसे इस अधिनियम के समझौते के तहत लाया जाता है तो उसे राज्य अधिनियम से बाहर रखा जायेगा और समझौते की अवधि के दौरान इस अधिनियम के तहत बरकरार रहेगा।
  9. यदि कोई कृषि उपज आवश्यक वस्तु अधिनियम, 1955 या जारी किए गए किसी भी नियंत्रण आदेश या किसी अन्य कानून में लागू होता है, तो यह इस अधिनियम के किसी भी समझौते के तहत किसान द्वारा उत्पादित किए जाने वाले किसी भी उत्पादन पर लागु नहीं होगा।
  10. समझौते में किसानों की भूमि को किसी भी हस्तांतरण, बिक्री, पट्टे या बंधक के अधीन नहीं किया जाएगा। यहां तक कि अगर प्रायोजक किसान की भूमि पर कोई अस्थायी या स्थायी निर्माण करता है, तो वह उसे अपने खर्च पर निकालने के लिए बाध्य होगा। वह इस निर्माण को ऐसा ही छोड़ भी सकता है अगर किसान सहमत हो।

विवाद का समाधान

इसके नियम किसानों के उत्पाद व्यापार और वाणिज्य अधिनियम 2020 के समान हैं।

किसानों की चिंताएं

पूरे भारत में किसान इन अधिनियम के संबंध में विरोध कर रहे हैं। उन्हें कॉरपोरेट्स के हाथों शोषण होने का डर है। प्रत्येक अधिनियम के लिए उनकी चिंताए निम्नलिखित है:

1. आवश्यक वस्तुएं ( संशोधन ) आदेश, 2020
  • किसानों के पास भंडारण की सुविधा नहीं है, इसलिए उन्हें अपनी उपज जल्द से जल्द बेचनी होगी।
  • यह अधिनियम जमाखोरी को प्रोत्साहित करेगा। यह कृषि उपज जमा करने के लिए व्यापारी दलों को खुली छूट देगा जिससे न केवल उत्पादन की कीमत की मार्किट में वृद्धि होगी, बल्कि इससे ब्लैक मार्केटिंग भी होगी।
  • किसान न केवल उत्पादक हैं बल्कि वे उपभोक्ता भी हैं। इसलिए वे मूल्य वृद्धि से बुरी तरह प्रभावित हो सकते हैं।
  • व्यापारी दल मूल्य के साथ अपनी मर्ज़ी से छेडछाड कर सकते है। इसे कम कर सकते हैं जब उन्हें किसानों से इसे खरीदना होगा और बढ़ा सकते है जब वह इसे बाजार में उपभोक्ता को बेचेंगे। प्याज के निर्यात पर हालिया प्रतिबंध इसके बारे में संदेह पैदा करता है।

2. किसानों का उत्पादन व्यापार और वाणिज्य (संवर्धन और सुविधा) आदेश, 2020:
  • चूंकि छोटे किसान अपनी मुख्य भूमि से बहुत दूर नहीं जा सकते थे, इसलिए वे अपनी उपज को स्थानीय स्तर पर बेचने के अलावा कुछ नहीं कर सकते।
  • एमएसपी (MSP)एक और चिंता का विषय है। सरकार ने विधेयक में इसका आश्वासन नहीं दिया। किसान चिंतित हैं कि भविष्य में इसे समाप्त किया जा सकता है।
  • एमएसपी के बिना उन्हें अपने उत्पाद को अपने आसपास के क्षेत्र में उपलब्ध मूल्य पर ही बेचना होगा।
  • खुले बाजार में एपीएमसी (APMC) धीरे धीरे विघटित हो जायेगी और फिर कॉर्पोरेट बाजार को हतिया कर उत्पादन की कीमतों के साथ मनमर्ज़ी खिलवाड़ करेंगे।

3. किसानों (रोजगार और संरक्षण) मूल्य आश्वासन पर समझौता और कृषि सेवा आदेश, 2020:
  • किसान विशेष रूप से छोटे किसान कानूनी प्रक्रिया का ध्यान नहीं रख सकते थे और कॉर्पोरेट इससे उनका शोषण कर सकते है।

विशेषज्ञ की राय

विशेषज्ञों के मिश्रित विचार हैं। जबकि कुछ विशेषज्ञ और प्रोफेसर आर.एस. देशपांडे, जो सामाजिक और आर्थिक परिवर्तन संस्थान के पूर्व निदेशक हैं, उनमें से एक हैं, इन बिलों का समर्थन करते हैं और तर्क देते हैं कि खुले बाजार में प्रतिस्पर्धा का माहौल होगा और किसानों की आय बढ़ाने में उनका समर्थन करेंगे।
    जबकि कुछ विशेषज्ञ जिनमे से पी साईनाथ  एक है, ने एतराज जताया है और कहते है कि यह किसानों को बर्बाद कर देगा। उनका तर्क है कि मुख्य रूप से एक आदिवासी क्षेत्र का एक बहुत छोटा किसान जो मुश्किल से 2 से 3 बोरी कृषि उपज पैदा करता है वह इस खुले बाजार में जीवित नहीं रह सकता है। यहां तक कि वह अपने खेत की उपज का एमएसपी भी नहीं प्राप्त कर सकता। वे एपीएमसी (APMC) के संशोधन के पक्ष में हैं और किसान के लिए एक अच्छी भंडारण सुविधा चाहते हैं ताकि वे फसल की बेहतर कीमत के लिए अपने खेत की उपज को स्टोर कर सकें। वे बिहार का उदाहरण देते हैं जहां एपीएमसी मौजूद नहीं है और प्रतिस्पर्धी बाजार हैं, लेकिन किसानों को अभी भी पंजाब और हरियाणा की तुलना में जहां एपीएमसी मौजूद है, उनकी फसलों के लिए बहुत कम कीमत मिलती है।

    कई किसान यूनियन नए अधिनियम और संशोधन का समर्थन करते हैं, जबकि उनमें से अधिकांश अखिल भारतीय किसान संघर्ष (एआईकेएस) और भारतीय किसान संघ (बीकेएस), जो राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ से जुड़े हैं, एमएसपी को जोड़ने के लिए एक खंड की मांग कर रहे हैं जो किसानों को मूल आय का आश्वासन देता है। 

कांग्रेस और कुछ विपक्षी दलों का रुख

पूरे जोरों से इसका विरोध कर रहे है और मांग कर रहे है  या तो अधिनियम को वापस लिया जाये अन्यथा एमएसपी (MSP) को इन अधिनियम में जोड़ा जाये। उसी के लिए वे राज्यसभा का बहिष्कार कर रहे हैं और 25 सितंबर को भारत बंद का भी समर्थन किया।


    सरकार का तर्क है कि आंदोलन केवल पंजाब और हरियाणा में हो रहे है क्योंकि इन राज्यों में आरती की संख्या बहुत बड़ी है। वे कमीशन एजेंट हैं। केवल वे विरोध प्रदर्शन कर रहे हैं क्योंकि उनका अस्तित्व दांव पर है।


तीन अधिनियमों के खिलाफ पूरे विरोध को रोका जा सकता है यदि सरकार तीन कानूनों को रद्द करती है और APMC को मजबूत करती है और साथ ही यह उद्योगपतियों को कोल्ड स्टोरेज चेन बनाने और खेती को आधुनिक बनाने में ले कर आ सकती है जिससे किसानो को भी फायेदा होगा। लेकिन यह सरकार पर निर्भर करता है कि वह नाराज किसानों को कैसे मनाएगी।

Friday, September 25, 2020

New Farm Bills 2020 Explained: All About the 3 Farm Bills and Farmers Protest

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New Farm Acts

Govt. of India on 5th June 2020 brought 3 ordinances. These ordinances are associated with agriculture reform in which agriculture growth and farmers’ income are focused. These ordinances are:


Although these ordinances could lapse after 6 weeks of next reassembly of parliament, they were reintroduced in parliament in form of bills. Both the houses have passed them and now they have become acts. Let’s understand what these acts are:

1. The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act 2020:
According to the act of 1955 of essential commodity, The Govt. of India could regulate the production, supply and distribution as well as trade and commerce of certain horticultural products whose availability and price are disturbed in the market. But according to the new amendment the govt. of India brought the following changes:

  1. The supply of such foodstuffs including cereals, pulses, edible oilseed, oil, potato and onion may be regulated only when some exceptional circumstances like war, famine, natural disaster and remarkable rise in the price. 
  2. The stock limits will be regulated only in case of price rise and the order for the same may be issued only under the following conditions:
    • If the retail price of the perishable foodstuffs increases 100 percent.
    • If the retail price of the non-perishable foodstuffs increases 50 percent.
  3. The price immediately after 12 months or the average of 5 years whichever is lower, will be considered for stabilizing. 
  4. Any order for stabilizing the stock limit will not be applicable to processors and value chain participants if the stocking capacity of their plant or factory, does not exceed the processing capacity of the commodity and in case of exporters if the stock does not exceed their demand for the export. 
  5. The Public Distribution System (PDS) or Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) will not come under the purview of stock limit order.

2. The farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020: According to this act farmers and traders have absolute freedom to sell and purchase agricultural produce. The farmers can sell their crops either intra-State or inter-State. They can sell their farm produce at whatever price they desire. Similarly traders also have the same benefits. They can trade in scheduled agricultural produce (Produce that could only be sold under the AMPC) with anyone throughout the India.

Structure of This Act 
  • Any trader can trade in scheduled agricultural produce in any state of India. For the same he should have a permanent account number (PAN). He may also set up an electronic trading and transaction platform in a trading area to make the trade easy but this platform should not violate the rules and regulations and should follow the guidelines. 
  • If any irregularity seems to be done by the traders with respect to electronic trading then govt. may take initiative and make rules. 
  • No state govt. has rights to levy market fee or cess on any farmer, trader or any electronic trading. 
  • The current APMC will continue and any state’s APMC act and other law of the State will be enforced for the time being. 

Dispute Resolution

  • In case of any dispute between farmer and trader, they can seek resolution by filing an application to SDM. He will refer their case to the Conciliation Board. 
  • The Conciliation Board shall consist of a chairperson and members not less than two and not more than four. 
  • If the parties are unable to resolve their dispute within thirty days, they may approach the Sub-Divisional Magistrate who takes cognizance of any contravention of the provisions and takes action and gives orders to settle the dispute. 
  • No party can approach the civil court in this matter and all the orders from the Sub-Divisional Authority will be at par with civil court. 
  • Any person aggrieved by an order may approach an officer not below the rank of joint secretary to the government of India within 60 days if somehow not able to do this he can approach the officer within 90 days but in this case he needs to give reason for the delay.

  • If any party violates the provisions, shall be liable to pay a penalty of rupees not less than 25000/- and may extend to 5,00,000/- rupees. If any party continues the violation, the penalty may be levied to five thousand rupees for each day. 
  • If the person who owns, controls or operates an electronics trading and transaction platform, violates the provision of sections 5 and 7 shall be liable to pay a penalty which is not less than 5000/- rupees and can be extended to 10 lakhs rupees. 
3. The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and farm Services Act, 2020: Through this bill farmers are allowed to have formal agreement with agri-business firms, processors, wholesalers, exporters and large retailers for their farm produce with profitable price. Earlier there was not any provision for contract farming and due to this big companies could not enter the farm sector but through this act big firms can do it now. 

Structure of This Act
  • A farmer may have a written agreement with terms and conditions related to the supply, quality, price and supply of farm services(farm services are those services which are required for farming and it can be  seed, pesticide or machinery etc.) for  his farm produce with any firm or organization. 
  • No rights of agri-business firms, processors or any large retailers will be exploited 
  • The minimum period of agreement shall be one crop season and maximum period of five years.
  • The central govt. may provide the guidelines and model farming agreement for the farmers to enter into the agreement. 
  • The price for the farm produce will be mentioned in the agreement and if the price varies during the process of farm produce then a guaranteed price + additional amount will be given to the farmer provided that a method to find guaranteed price and additional amount shall be annexed to the farming agreement. 
  • The Sponsor either in case of seed production, make payment of not less than two-third of agreed amount at the time of delivery and the remaining amount after due certification, but not later than thirty days of delivery or in case of other produce make the payment at the delivery.
  • The State Government may define the mode and manner for the payment. 
  • If a farm produce falls under the State act and is brought under the agreement of this act then it will be exempt from the State act and will remain intact under this act during the agreement period.
  • If a farm produce comes under Essential Commodities Act, 1955 or in any control order issued or in any other law for the time being in force shall not be applicable to this produce if it is being produced by the farmer under any agreement of this act.  
  • In the agreement the land of the farmers will not be subjected to any transfer, sale, lease or mortgage. Even if the sponsor sets up any temporary or permanent structure on farmer’s land, he is bound to remove it on his own expenditure and have to restore the land in its original state. He could let this structure as it is provided the farmer (owner) is agreed upon.

Dispute Resolution
Its rules are the same as in the farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce Act 2020.

Farmers’ Concerns

All over the India farmers are protesting with respect to these acts. They are afraid of being exploited in the hand of corporates. They are worried for each of the act and have following concerns:

The Essential commodity Act 
  • Farmers do not have storage facilities so they have to sell their produce as soon as possible as it may perish.
  • This act will encourage hoarding. It gives free hand to cartels to hoard agricultural produce which may not only increase the price of the commodity but it also leads to black marketing.
  • While farmers are not only producers they are also consumers. So they could be badly affected by the price surge. 
  • Cartels may play with the price and reduce it when they have to purchase it from the farmers and increase it when they have to sell it in the consumer market. Recent ban on onion exports creates doubt about it.
The farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act
  • As the small farmers could not move far away from their own main land they can do nothing but to sell their produce locally. 
  • MSP is another concern. Govt. did not assure of it in the bill. Farmers are worried that in future it can be abolished. 
  • Without MSP they have to sell their produce at what price available in their vicinity.
  • With the open market the APMC will lose ground and dissipate in near future and then corporate sectors may overtake the market and play with the price of the farm produce.
The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and farm Services Act
  • The farmers especially small farmers could not take care of legal procedure and big corporates can have upper hand in it. 

Experts Opinions

There are mixed views of the experts. While some of the experts and prof R.S. Deshpande who is former  Director of the Institute for Social and Economic Change is one of them, support these bills and make arguments that the open market will have a competitive environment and support the farmers in increasing their income.

Some of the Experts and P Sainath, a journalist who writes on rural affairs and poverty one of them say that the act seems good but intention behind it seems otherwise and could affect the farmers badly. They argue that a very small farmer mainly from a tribal area who hardly produces 2 to 3 sacks of farm produce cannot survive in this open market. He even could not be able to get the MSP of its farm produce. They are in favor of modification of APMC and want to have a good storage facility for the farmer so that they can store their farm produce for the better price of the crop. They give examples of Bihar where APMC does not exist and have competitive markets but the farmers still get much lower price for their crops than Punjab and Haryana where APMC exists.

Many farmers unions support the new acts and amendment while most of them 
including All India Kisan Sangharsh (AIKS) and Bhartiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) which is affiliated to Rashtriay Swayamsevak Sangh are demanding a clause to add MSP which assure the basic income to the farmers.

Congress and some opposition parties’ stand

Congress and other opposition parties are fighting tooth and nail to either revoke these acts or bring some changes to make the MSP compulsory to purchase the farm produce. For the same they are boycotting Rajya Sabha and even call for Bharat Band on 25th Sep.


Govt. argues that agitations are only held in Punjab and Haryana as the number of Arthi in these states is very big. They are commission agents. Only they are holding protests just because their existence is on the stack. 


The whole protest against the 3 acts could be stopped if the govt. revokes the three laws and consolidate APMC and simultaneously it can bring the private players in making cold storage chain and modernizing farming. But it is all up to the govt. how they will persuade angry farmers. 

Saturday, September 12, 2020

Dengue Fever: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment , Vaccine

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Dengue Fever

Human beings are affected by so many
diseases in the world and one of them is Dengue. This disease is vector borne disease and transmitted by the Aegypti mosquito. The dengue fever is caused by the Dengue Virus (DENV).

It is said that around the 17th century onward the slaves were transported from South Africa to different countries like Australia, America and some part of the Europe and the southern Asia. The Aegypti mosquitoes which only existed there at that time, dispersed throughout the world by means of slaves transportation. Afterwards, people there were having dengue-like illness which is later on to be known as Dengue Fever.

According to the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) which comes under the ministry of Health & family welfare of India reported 1,57,315 cases and 166 deaths in 2019. 4.2 million Cases and 4032 deaths were reported worldwide in 2019 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). 

Causes for Dengue Fever 

The primary factor for the Dengue fever is Aegypti mosquitoes. They carry the virus and transmit it not only from human to human by biting them but also in their own ancestry from where the virus is further transmitted. Only female Aegypti mosquitoes bite human beings as they require blood to mature and lay their eggs. In the rainy season they become more active and multiply themselves as they need stagnant water to lay eggs to be hatched. Due to this reason, the tropical area is most affected by dengue fever and countries in central Africa, many countries in south-east Asia and some countries in America continent come under it. 

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

When a person is infected with dengue virus, it usually takes 3 to 10 days for incubation and in this period the person has symptoms which is similar to flu. During this period the patient has high fever (40°C or 104°F) and with at least one of the following:

  • Headache 
  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting 
  • Joint, Muscle and Bone pain
  • Fatigue restlessness 
  • Pain behind eyes 
  • Dengue Rashes 
  • Swelling in glands

 As the time goes the patient starts recovering after 7 days and fever starts going down but in some cases it might be the symptom for the severity of this disease. At this point, one should be cautious and take notice of the following symptoms which might lead the patient to the severity of the Dengue. 

  • Severe abdominal pain 
  • Frequent Vomiting 
  • Vomiting with Blood 
  • Bleeding Gums 
  • Rapid Breathing 

In this case patient need special medical attention and should be hospitalized immediately.


The doctor might recommend among the following mentioned tests if he feels that any or many among them should be done:
  • Platelet Count: This test lets the doctor know the platelets' count in the body which should be in the range of 1,50,000 to 4,00,000 per micro-liter in the healthy person otherwise it goes down. Although this test gives information with respect to the illness but it does not specify the disease.
  • Dengue NS1 Antigen: This test should be done within 5 days when the symptoms appear.
  • Dengue RNA PCR Test: this test should be done within 5 days after appearing the symptom.
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM): This test should be done after 7 days. 
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG): This test should be done after 15 days. 

Prevention of dengue  

It is always advisable to keep away from the mosquitoes and for the same there need to be taken several following measurements:
  • We should not let the rainy water deposit in the junk items like empty can and put the lid on water containers where mosquitoes can breed. 
  • In the rainy season, it is always advisable to wear a full sleeved shirt or T-shirt otherwise apply some mosquito repellents on the body.
  • Use mosquito repellent at home. 
  • It is advisable to regularly change the water of your Air Cooler which is common in South-east Asia’s countries. 


Although there is no particular medicine for the dengue fever yet doctors prescribe among the available medicines according to the patient's condition. It is highly recommended to take medicine only under the doctor’s supervision and avoid taking aspirin as it may aggravate bleeding. 

What you can do is take a complete rest and take plenty of water or other hydrant substance and coconut water is best of them which not only re-hydrate you but also provide minerals and energy to fight against dengue. 

Dengue Vaccine

A vaccine called Dengvaxia has been approved, licensed and available in some counties for the people of age group between 9 and 45 years old. It was developed by Sanofi Pasteur, headquarter in Lyon, France. WHO recommends that only those people who previously infected with the virus, will be vaccinated as the vaccine has some adverse effect on the people who never have dengue as per the report published by Sanofi Pasteur in 2017.
In India, vaccines for dengue fever are still in research mode.